Navy Automated Morse Code (CW) Equipment

Paper Tape High-Speed Morse Systems

At shore transmitting stations, Morse code messages could be punched onto paper tape and then sent via a CW or FSK keyer which controlled the transmitters. Normal manual shore-to-ship transmission was around 20 wpm, but high speed links between shore stations could run up to 400 wpm. See below for transmitting tape perforators and keyers and high-speed code recorders. The manual for Boehme paper tape equipment is TM 11-377.

boehme-tm11-486-02.jpg (364980 bytes)

Wheatstone tape: --.- ... - (QST)
tape-01.JPG (58974 bytes)

Wheatstone perforator and keying head 
in use at NLK Jim Creek
jimcreek-54-04.JPG (170472 bytes)
"WAVE Hope Humphreys operates a radio  circuit high-speed transmitter at the Naval  Communications Center, Washington, D.C.,  July 1945."
keyer-1945-01.jpg (73248 bytes)
Video of perforator and McElroy keyer in operation

.
Video of perforator and Boehme keyer in operation 

 

 

 

At the receiving end of a high-speed link, Morse was recorded in ink onto a paper tape - the tape ("slip") was read by Radiomen who typed the messages using a mill (typewriter). 

boehme-tm11-486-01.jpg (1225208 bytes) inker-tape-1409.JPG (1360515 bytes) Video of Rob Flory's BC-1016 inker at work

 

Code recorders were also widely used for intercept work:
    Info from Arthur Adolphsen, USASA - "In 1956-8 we used the RD-112 recorders. The radio racks, 50 in each room, contained two SP-600 receivers, later changed to R-390's. They were connected to one FSK converter, which aligned the signals, symmetrical and volume, with Operator's help. We could adjust the length of dots/dashes with a speed wheel or reverse the signal with a switch when it went up side down on the RD-112, from the FSK converter then to the RD-112. We scanned and read the tape by eye/hand, cutting the desired message for later translating via Royal or Underwood machines with a tape puller motor to the left of the typewriters.
    We had a large antenna field, and could connect and change direction by a large board with cable plugs, looked like a Telephone switch board, only no switches, just plugs and wires, as one radio lost its signal we could find another antenna (direction or orientation). Seemed as though the inverted V's worked the best for most every frequency. Was easy to chase the signals with the plug system.
    Most of the Automatic operators could read and type the code on the tapes very fast, most around 50 or 60 wpm. We became able to type very fast by the end of our tour. The paper from the tape, after going through the ink pen just piled up on the floor, some of the messages were very short, only a foot or so of paper, and some went on for many hours, maybe a day or so, we had to make sure the tape roll was full, and the ink bottle was full and as good a signal as possible."


Code Recorder (AKA inker or undulator)

Video of Rob Flory's BC-1016 inker at work

RD-110/U Paper Tape Code Recorder - Before Restoration 


rd110-spec-01a.JPG (123489 bytes)
rd110-05.JPG (107621 bytes)
Tape feeder tray missing from lower right. Ink reservoir upper center.
Solenoid controlled inker below it.
Tape capstan at upper left.
rd110-13.JPG (127852 bytes)
As found  - just a wee bit dirty
rd110-06.JPG (115220 bytes)
Tape capstan at upper left
rd110-12.JPG (107086 bytes)
Ink reservoir
rd110-07.JPG (175846 bytes)
Solenoid controlled inker
-
rd110-10.JPG (195262 bytes)
Capstan motor showing variable diameter shaft for speed control
rd110-11.JPG (149936 bytes)
Capstan motor showing variable diameter shaft for speed control
rd110-08.JPG (196861 bytes)
center - inker solenoid
right - capstan motor
rd110-09.JPG (97802 bytes)
inker solenoid

Restoration -  - I am missing some piece that guides the paper tape past the pen - please send me e-mail with any info or photos of this unit

rd110-104.JPG (175284 bytes)
Good Navy paint beneath the grime
rd110-103.JPG (142531 bytes)
Ah that looks better
rd110-101.JPG (113078 bytes) rd110-cap-01.JPG (100197 bytes)
Capstan and pinch roller
rd110-pen-04a.JPG (178297 bytes)
Green points to pen tip
Magenta - pen motion
Blue - tape path?
Yellow - missing piece? roller?
rd110-pen-03.JPG (185757 bytes)
Better shot of pen tip between adjustable stops.
rd110-pen-01.JPG (86291 bytes) rd110-pen-04.JPG (186777 bytes)
rd110-spec-01.JPG (181101 bytes) rd110-spec-02.JPG (123137 bytes) -- --

I have got the pen and capstan motor working, but am missing some piece that guides the paper tape past the pen - please send me e-mail with any info or photos of this unit - need NAVSHIPS 91862 manual


RD-60/U Code Recorder  (McElroy RAPC)

rd60-01.jpg (178457 bytes)

Photos thanks to WA1TEJ

rd60-02.jpg (160645 bytes) rd60-spec-01.JPG (249756 bytes) rd60-spec-02.JPG (154541 bytes)

McElroy (also Warren Mfg Co.)- Signal Corps procurement, used by USN

rd60-1510-10.JPG (2609690 bytes) rd60-1510-11.JPG (2625552 bytes) rd60-1510-12.JPG (2620360 bytes) --
rd60-1702-01.jpg (153382 bytes) rd60-1702-04.jpg (180579 bytes) rd60-1702-05.jpg (125343 bytes) --

RD-70/U Code Signal Recorder  (Mecanitron MA-126E)

Need better photo
rd70-u-01.JPG (80709 bytes)
rd70-spec-01.JPG (264807 bytes) -- Manf by Mecanitron
(Model MA-126E)
1947

Spec Sheet

RD-112A/U Code Tape Recorder

rd112a-u.jpg (329666 bytes) rd112-spec-01.JPG (348258 bytes) rd112-spec-02.JPG (141115 bytes) Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

Manf by McElroy - 1954

NAVSHIPS 63346 

Operating Info

RD-17/U Paper Tape Ink Recorder (Boehme 4-G)

Boehme 4-G Ink Recorder
boehme-4g-inker-11.jpg (1686372 bytes)

inker-tape-1409.JPG (1360515 bytes)

boehme-4g-inker-10.jpg (3602915 bytes) The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

Photos of Boehme 3-G Ink Recorder

Please let me know if you have a Boehme ink recorder for sale or trade.

I'm also looking for 3/8" wide paper tape.

AM-103/U Ink Recorder Driver

(Boehme 4-C)

boehme-4c-driver-12.jpg (1771167 bytes)

 

boehme-4c-driver-11.jpg (1993667 bytes)

boehme-4c-driver-10.jpg (2242446 bytes)

MX-480/U Tape Reel
(Boehme 7-H Series B)
mx480u-spec-01.jpg (467623 bytes)
boehme-7h-10.jpg (3011180 bytes)

NT-50059 Ink Recorder Driver

ink-driver-50059-01.jpg (123604 bytes)

NT-5009 Spec Sheet -- --

McElroy RRD-900-42 Paper Tape Recorder - Commercial recorder (uses external tape puller)

mcelroy-inker-1201.jpg (28325 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-01.jpg (111321 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-02.jpg (135333 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-03.jpg (98711 bytes)
inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-04.jpg (102506 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-05.jpg (114597 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-06.jpg (113465 bytes) inker-mcelroy-rrd90042-1411-07.jpg (137444 bytes)

Tape Pullers

MX-1365/U (Boehme 8-F Series B) Tape Puller with rewinder reel

mx1365-u-spec-02.JPG (53833 bytes) The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

mx1365-u-spec-01.JPG (191328 bytes)

boehme-8f-01.jpg (90265 bytes) boehme-8f-00.jpg (90524 bytes)
boehme-8f-02.jpg (95941 bytes) boehme-8f-03.jpg (79026 bytes)

Boehme Tape Puller or ??

Please send e-mail if you can identify this equipment

The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

boehme-1402-01.JPG (2526532 bytes) boehme-1402-05.JPG (3684019 bytes) boehme-1402-02.JPG (3858324 bytes)
MX-442/U Tape Puller
(Boehme 4-F-E)
mx442u-spec-01.jpg (475511 bytes)
boehme-1402-03.JPG (3447239 bytes) boehme-1402-04.JPG (3405634 bytes) boehme-1402-06.JPG (3455136 bytes)
MX-477/U Tape Winder Control
(Boehme 7-FA, Series E)
Adds remote control of the pressure roller bracket of Tape Puller MX-442.

Attached to MX-442 when the tape puller is used to pull tape through the ink recorder, allowing the operator to remotely start-stop the tape.

mx477-boehme-7FA.jpg (1196408 bytes) mx477-boehme-7FA-int.jpg (690744 bytes)
MX-478/U Rewinder Reel Attachment
(Boehme 4-FA, Series E)
Mechanically rewinds tape as it is pulled by Tape Puller MX-442

Attached to MX-442 when the tape puller is used to pull tape across the MX-481 tape bridge 

The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

mx478-boehme-4FA.jpg (1294566 bytes) mx478-boehme-4FA-tape.jpg (297046 bytes)
TT-2/FG Tape Puller
(DeLisser TP-200)
tt2-puller-01.jpg (220988 bytes) spec sheet --
TT-28/U Tape Puller
(Boehme 11-F)
Used to pull 3/8" paper recording tape
thru tape bridge for transcribing ink slip recording. Used with Tape Bridge Guide MX-481/U
need photo boehme-tm11-486-01.jpg (1225208 bytes)
MX-481/U Tape Bridge Guide
(Boehme 4-K)
3/8" paper; used as guide for moving tape over mill keyboard boehme-4k-bridge-10.jpg (957897 bytes)

The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

boehme-tape-bridge.png (50197 bytes)

McElroy TP-890-B Tape Puller
mcelroy-puller-1202-01.jpg (500130 bytes)

McElroy TP-890B spec sheet McElroy ad - 1950
mcelroy-1950-1.JPG (1264241 bytes)
--

Transmitting Keyers

Paper tapes were created using a Wheatstone perforator (2-level code on 15/32" tape) and then played through a keyer for transmission at up to 400wpm.
Video of perforator and McElroy keyer in operation.
Video of perforator and Boehme keyer in operation 

Wheatstone perforator and keying head 
in use at NLK Jim Creek
jimcreek-54-04.JPG (170472 bytes)
"WAVE Hope Humphreys operates a radio circuit high-speed transmitter at the Naval Communications Center, Washington, D.C., July 1945."
keyer-1945-01.jpg (73248 bytes)
Boehme keyer & Wheatstone perforator

wheatstone-boehme-1412-01.jpg (107367 bytes)

MX-491A/U Wheatstone Perforator
mx491u-spec-01.jpg (474397 bytes)

Morse Keyboard Perforators

MX-491/U Wheatstone Perforator (15/32" 2-level tape) 
Teletype Corp. WPE3/1SS
(AKA "Kleinschmidt Perforator")

Download manual & parts list for Teletype WPE3/1SS, WPE3/1JJJ, & WPE16/1SS  (thanks to Tom Tillson)

Please let me know if you have any 15/32" paper tape for sale

1945 USN WPE18 unit
wpe18-01.JPG (49304 bytes)

Wheatstone tape: --.- ... - (QST)
tape-01.JPG (58974 bytes)

Video of perforator and McElroy keyer in operation.

WPE3 commercial unit
wheatstone-punch-912.jpg (63504 bytes)
wheatstone-punch-915.jpg (92953 bytes)

wheatstone-punch-911.jpg (112787 bytes)

wheatstone-punch-916.jpg (61676 bytes)

wheatstone-punch-917.jpg (82333 bytes)

wheatstone-boehme-1412-03.jpg (158765 bytes) wheatstone-boehme-1412-04.jpg (170089 bytes) wheatstone-boehme-1412-05.jpg (137812 bytes) wheatstone-boehme-1412-06.jpg (106537 bytes)
PP-189/U Power Supply 120vdc, 1.2amp for Wheatstone perforator - Teletype Corp. REC-32
AN/FGQ-3  includes perforator, power supply, table, etc. - -

TT-393/UG Morse Keyboard Perforator
(GNT Model 51)

tt393-gnt51-01.jpg (2691901 bytes) NAVSHIPS 94653

(15/32" 2-level tape)

KEYERS

KY-469/UG Keyer (same as GNT-112) 

ky469-ug.JPG (104496 bytes) keyer-GNT2042-01.JPG (18279 bytes)

   KY-469/UG Spec Sheet

-

Boehme 4-D Drive with Boehme 4-E Keying Head- More photos


boehme-keyer-91.jpg (40530 bytes)
boehme-keyer-94.jpg (34547 bytes) boehme-keyer-95.jpg (31746 bytes) boehme-keyer-96.jpg (59821 bytes)
boehme-keyer-92.jpg (55618 bytes) boehme-keyer-93.jpg (50753 bytes) boehme-keyer-97.jpg (67017 bytes) The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.
wheatstone-boehme-1412-07.jpg (140377 bytes) wheatstone-boehme-1412-08.jpg (108480 bytes)

wheatstone-boehme-1412-14.jpg (151151 bytes)

wheatstone-boehme-1412-09.jpg (59273 bytes) wheatstone-boehme-1412-11.jpg (102783 bytes)

wheatstone-boehme-1412-10.jpg (117674 bytes)

MX-439/U Keying Head Drive
(Boehme 4-D-E) 
mx439u-spec-01.jpg (488546 bytes)
MX-439/U Keying Head Drive
(Boehme 4-D-E) 
mx439u-spec-02.jpg (346557 bytes)
MX-439A/U Keying Head Drive
(Boehme 4-D-J) 
mx439u-spec-03.jpg (484052 bytes)
MX-439A/U Keying Head Drive
(Boehme 4-D-J)
mx439u-spec-04.jpg (221662 bytes)

Manual NAVSHIPS 92220

The manual for Boehme equipment is TM 11-377.

KY-14/U Keyer (Boehme 4-E Series B Automatic Keying Head)

keyer-boehme-4e-1405-01.jpg (127924 bytes) keyer-boehme-4e-1405-02.jpg (148950 bytes) keyer-boehme-4e-1405-08.jpg (87139 bytes) keyer-boehme-4e-1405-04.jpg (103999 bytes)
keyer-boehme-4e-1405-05.jpg (150063 bytes) keyer-boehme-4e-1405-06.jpg (163058 bytes) keyer-boehme-4e-1405-03.jpg (164856 bytes) --

McElroy HED-400 Keying Head

keyer-mcelroy-hed400-01.JPG (128678 bytes)

keyer-mcelroy-hed400-03.JPG (129797 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-hed400-04.JPG (148792 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-hed400-02.JPG (142948 bytes)
keyer-mcelroy-hed400-05.JPG (162819 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-hed400-06.JPG (128540 bytes) -- -
McElroy XTR-442 keyer with MAH-142 keying head

From an on-line sale listing:  "The XTR-442 was an early McElroy development model Morse transmitter that was the predecessor of the McElroy XTR-442B Automatic Transmitter

The XTR-442 model listed here consists of a variable speed motor that, through a gear-reduction assembly, drives a McElroy sprocket feed paper tape reader (tape head) that in operation sends Morse coded signals to a polar relay mounted on the unit, the output of which was connected to radiotelephone or telegraphy equipment to send messages at high speed. In use the operator mounts the tape head in one of two positions on the units deck to establish the desired speed range. The two speed ranges allow the unit to send Morse code at 5 to 200 words per minute. The head is located to the right side of the deck for speeds of 5-35 wpm and to the left side for speeds of 30-200 wpm. The motor speed within these ranges is adjusted with the 300 ohm motor speed rheostat, see enclosed schematic. The head utilized a 1/2 inch wide oiled paper tape that was prepared by using a companion paper tape perforator such as McElroy’s or those of other manufacturers.

This unit employs a 117N7GT vacuum tube which supplies rectified DC for the unit and is also a one tube amplifier in the keying circuit which allows some influence on the characteristics of the code coming out of the unit; such as the make and break characteristics of the polar output relay. A control on the unit can change what McElroy calls the “key dot bias” which I assume has to do with an operators subjective preference regarding “how heavy a fist” the unit sounds like it has.

An early QST advertisement (November, 1943) is included to show the XTR-442 in use and also shows McElroy himself. The ad also points out that McElroy’s automatic Morse transmitters were priced at $375.00 at that time, a pretty hefty price in 1943."

keyer-xtr442-1407-01.JPG (129909 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-02.JPG (135774 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-03.JPG (112356 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-08.JPG (152194 bytes)
keyer-xtr442-1407-05.JPG (160479 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-06.JPG (190132 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-07.JPG (308134 bytes) keyer-xtr442-1407-04.JPG (179877 bytes)

McElroy XTR-?442B Automatic Transmitter (Keyer) - Video of Wheatstone perforator and McElroy keyer in operation.

keyer-mcelroy-91.jpg (38916 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-95.jpg (29359 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-93.jpg (49321 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-96.jpg (61822 bytes)
keyer-mcelroy-97.jpg (53087 bytes) keyer-mcelroy-94.jpg (52091 bytes) mc-67.JPG (941947 bytes) mc-67a.JPG (939572 bytes)
Slightly different model shown below

mcelroy-keyer-1206.jpg (65576 bytes)

mcelroy-keyer-1201.jpg (40779 bytes) mc-69.JPG (1111129 bytes) mc-70.JPG (283875 bytes)
mcelroy-keyer-1203.jpg (29903 bytes) mcelroy-keyer-1202.jpg (35959 bytes) mcelroy-keyer-1204.jpg (53508 bytes) mcelroy-keyer-1205.jpg (36890 bytes)

McElroy XTR-442C, -442G Automatic Transmitter (Keyer)

mcelroy-keyer-1202-03.jpg (1149838 bytes) mcelroy-keyer-1202-01.jpg (202259 bytes) mcelroy-keyer-1202-02.jpg (118845 bytes) -

Teletype-Morse Converter Systems

TT-94/FG
Baudot-to-Morse Tape Converter

The 1945 Teletype Corp. Automatic Wheatstone Perforator Set included a Baudot (5 level) tape reader plus an operating mechanism that pressed the key levers of a WPE16 Wheatstone Perforator (see above) to produce a Wheatstone tape. Please let me know if you have any additional information, photos, or one for sale or trade.

tt94-fg-01.jpg (2403418 bytes) tt94-fg-02.jpg (1141067 bytes)

In the 1960's-70's there were electronic Baudot-Morse and Morse-Baudot converters

AN/UGA-3
Morse-to-Baudot converter

uga3-01.JPG (72601 bytes)

AN/UGA-3 spec sheets

Includes external motor drive to connect to receiver BFO control for AFC.

From 1960 press release - "The AN/UGA-3, (commercial nomenclature CMP-18) automatically copies Morse code and converts it into teleprinter code at a rate of from 10 to 120 words/min, then types message on a page-copy teleprinter..."

Manuf: Trak Electronics Model CMP-18

Manual NAVSHIPS 94316

Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

CV-2015/U
CV-2015A/U
transmitter keying equipment

Same as Frederick 660A? Converts standard 7-unit start-stop (Baudot) code into international Morse code and keys transmitter

Manual is 0967-LP-876-1010

Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

CV-2124/U
CV-2124A/U
Morse-to-Baudot converter

Same as Frederick 670? Converts international Morse code into standard 7-unit start-stop (Baudot) code. Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

DT-325/U
DT-325A/U
tone detector

same as Frederick 1201? Interface between a conventional communications receiver and the CV-2124A Morse-to-teleprinter code converter. Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

CDCR-660A
Baudot-to-Morse Keyer

Frederick Electronics Model 660A
Teleprinter-to-Morse Code converter
Did this become CV-2015/U?

fred-660a-1308.JPG (54459 bytes) Installed aboard USS Arlington AGMR-2
agmr2-cw-01.jpg (628860 bytes)
Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade - I need 2 PC boards and a manual
fred-660a-1602-01.jpg (40302 bytes) fred-660a-1602-02.jpg (37866 bytes) fred-660a-1602-03.jpg (27766 bytes)
backplane - code converter boards plug in at left
fred-660a-9155.JPG (2598013 bytes)
logic board and code converter board
fred-660a-9159.JPG (3367447 bytes)
logic board
fred-660a-9158.JPG (2159324 bytes)
  control - relays for input, step, output
fred-660a-9160.JPG (2394471 bytes)
control
fred-660a-9161.JPG (2232168 bytes)
power supply
fred-660a-9162.JPG (1658721 bytes)

CDCR-670
Morse-to-Baudot converter

fred-670-1308.JPG (47453 bytes) Frederick Electronics Model 670
Morse-to-Baudot converter
Did this become CV-2124/U?

CDCR-670 spec sheets

Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

CDCR-1201
tone detector

frederick-1201.JPG (45409 bytes) Frederick Electronics Model 1201
Interface between receiver and Model 670 Morse-Baudot converter
Did this become DT-325/U?

CDCR-1201 spec sheets

Please let me know if you have one for sale or trade

"Mill" - Typewriter for Navy Radiomen copying CW (Morse Code) manually